What two ways might a deductive argument not be sound?

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What two ways might a deductive argument not be sound?


1.         Firstly, in what two ways might a deductive argument not be sound?
2.         Secondly, explain whether the following is a valid argument form: P Therefore, P and Q
3.         Thirdly, are all valid arguments sound? Why or why not? Give an example if necessary.
4.         Fourthly, what is an inductive argument? Are good inductive arguments sound? Why or why not?
5.         “Either you support Bill 21 and secularism in Quebec or you think that we should let all of our schools be turned into religious cults.” This is an example of what kind of fallacy? Explain.

6.         Suppose I reason as follows, “Here is what I already know: there are fresh, large hiking boot prints on the trail; there are also fresh cigarette butts on the ground; and Smith, who has large feet and smokes, has recently been seen in the area, which is very isolated. Therefore, Smith probably walked down this trail very recently.” Explain what specific kind of reasoning I am following. What makes this kind of reasoning cogent?
7.         Consider the following argument: “If Susan is a political conservative, then Susan opposes elective abortion. Susan, in fact, is not a political conservative. So, Susan is not opposed to elective abortion.” What is the conclusion of this argument? Is this argument valid? Why or why not?

8.         Consider the following argument:We have no evidence that P. Therefore, it is not the case that P. Explain what kind of fallacy this is and give an example. There are cases that are formally like this fallacy but are not a fallacy; please provide an example of one of these tricky cases. What is the difference between these two examples?

9.         Say I am told about a certain stereotype which is in fact false and which, to begin with, I do not believe.
10.      In what two ways do anecdotes and stories tend to be distorted as they are passed on continuously from storyteller to listener? Why does this tend to happen?
11.      Jane and Jennifer are discussing the ethical implications of polyamory and open relationships. After a very brief conversation, they abruptly part ways. Jane goes one way mumbling about how “Jennifer is so prudish, possessive, and stuck in the Victorian age,” while Jennifer goes the other way saying that “Jane has no ability to commit to anything and just wants to be an egoistic libertine with no adult obligations.”

12.      Why might someone do a double-blind study? What kind of errors is it intend to guard against?
13.      What is a possible problem with having many, diverse news sources available instead of just one or a few? How might this result in some people actually getting less breadth of information and fewer critical perspectives?
14.      Explain and give an example of one of the following kinds of fallacy:          (a) Naturalistic Fallacy           (b) Poisoning the Well

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