# What is causality and how is it determined? Explain

1.    What is causality and how is it determined? Explain. 2.    As health care professional, how does one determine cost-effectiveness in medicine? Use a specific example.

## What is causality and how is it determined? Explain

Discussion 4 – Chapter 14
After reading chapter 14 in Fleming, answer the questions below. Provide detailed explanation to your answers with factual examples. Read and respond to at least one posting with references.

1.    Firstly, What is causality and how is it determined? Explain.

2.    Secondly, As health care professional, how does one determine cost-effectiveness in medicine? Use a specific example.

3.    Thirdly, What is the future of primary care and prevention? Does prevention really work? Explain.

4.    Additionally, In the Clinical Decision-Making Toolbox case study (Fleming, page 374), the positive and negative likelihood ratios associate d with this test are 7 and 0.333 respectively.  Further, Provide an interpretation of these results.

6.    Finally, What are the challenges facing  primary care practitioners as they try to apply medical knowledge in their daily routines? Moreover, What are some of the approaches to solve these issues?
More details;

### What is causality and how is it determined?

Causal research, also called explanatory research, is the investigation of (research into) cause-and-effect relationships. To determine causality, it is important to observe variation in the variable assumed to cause the change in the other variable(s), and then measure the changes in the other variable(s).

What are the 3 criteria for causality?

The first three criteria are generally consider ed as requirements for identifying a causal effect:
(1) firstly, empirical association,
(2) secondly, temporal priority of the indepen- dent variable, and
(3) thirdly,nonspuriousness. You must also establish these three to claim a causal relationship.
What is causality in research methods?

Causality assumes that the value of an interdependent variable is the reason for the value of a dependent variable. In other words, a person’s value on Y is cause d by that person’s value on X, or X causes Y. Most social scientific research is interest in testing causal claims.