# Learning how to correctly interpret statistical measures

One objective of this course is learning how to correctly interpret statistical measures. This includes learning how to identify intentionally misleading statistics. For this week’s activity create your own example of a misleading statistic.

## Learning how to correctly interpret statistical measures

Each Discussion item must be in APA format, 300+ words with at least one source – No Title page is needed. References can be listed below each answer to the discussion question.

**Week 1 Discussion**

One objective of this course is learning how to correctly interpret statistical measures. This includes learning how to identify intentionally misleading statistics. For this week’s activity create your own example of a misleading statistic. Explain the context of the data, the source of the data, the sampling method that you used (or would use) to collect the data, and the (misleading) conclusions that would be drawn from your example. Be specific in explaining how the statistic is misleading.

**Week 2 Discussion**

Wondering how an Introduction to Statistics course will help you in your job, especially if your hopes for this class are to just survive? To get an idea of how statistics is used in your field, interview a colleague to find out how he or she uses statistics in his or her job. The following questions should be asked:

1. How do you use statistics in your job and what specific statistical concepts do you use?

2. Secondly, Please describe a specific example of how the use of statistics was helpful in improving a practice or service.

3. Thirdly, What background in statistics is required to obtain a job like yours? What other educational requirements are there?

4. Further, Do you recommend that today’s college students study statistics? Why or why not?

Comment on what you learned from the interview or what was most interesting or surprising to you.

**Week 3 Discussion**

The mathematical expression of probability as a number between 0 and 1 is fundamental to understanding statistics. For example, research articles will include a p-value expression such as “significance less than 0.001″. This means that a probability of 0.001 (equivalent to 1/1000) corresponds to an event so rare that it occurs an average of only once in a thousand trials.

Define and interpret the rare event rule for inferential statistics. This means that you should summarize from the text and then provide your own understanding of the rare event rule. Find an article from a peer-reviewed journal that states the p-value. What is the p-value? What does the p-value tell us? Further, What is the author’s conclusion based on that probability? Was their finding “unusual”, if unusual is defined as p < .05? Explain.

**Week 4 Discussion**

Find an article that discusses the results of a survey poll. Discuss and critique their methodology, results, and discussion. For example, was an appropriate sampling method used to support their results? Was a confidence interval provided? What does the confidence interval mean? How confident do you feel with their results based on their methodology? Explain. NOTE: You do not have to use a peer reviewed journal.

**Week 5 Discussion (same as week 6)**

Create a research hypothesis in your area of study that would be answered using either a z- or a t- test. Include the following:

1. Introduction: Brief description of the study including the purpose and importance of the research question being asked.

2. What is the null hypothesis? Further, what is the research hypothesis?

3. Participants/Sampling Method: Describe your sampling method. What is your sample size? Who is your population of interest? How representative is the sample of the population under study?

4. Data Analysis: Firstly, describe the statistical analysis. Further, what is your variable? Also, what is its level of measurement? Lastly, what is your alpha level?

5. Results & Discussion: Did you reject the null hypothesis? What information did you use to lead you to your conclusion? Was your p value greater than or less than your alpha? NOTE: You can just make up numbers, but include your made-up p value.

**Week 6 Discussion (Same as Week 5 but need another different research hypothesis)**

Create a research hypothesis in your area of study that would be answer ed using either a z- or a t- test. Include the following:

1. Introduction: Brief description of the study including the purpose and importance of the research question being asked.

2. What is the null hypothesis? What is the research hypothesis?

3. Participants/Sampling Method: Describe your sampling method. What is your sample size? Who is your population of interest? How representative is the sample of the population under study?

4. Data Analysis: Firstly, describe the statistical analysis. Further, what is your variable? Also, what is its level of measurement? Lastly, what is your alpha level?

5. Results & Discussion: Firstly, did you reject the null hypothesis? Further, what information did you use to lead you to your conclusion? Was your p value greater than or less than your alpha? NOTE: You can just make up numbers, but include your made-up p value.

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